Environmental Sciences Pollution and Remediation.
Free Preview. First book dedicated to opportunities for cost recovery in the wastewater and faecal sludge treatment sector in developed and developing countries Provides a unique overview of financial and economic assessment options and value propositions for reclaiming valuable water, nutrients, energy, and organic matter from sewage and septage Describes both challenges and opportunities of recovering nutrients in urban wastewater for use in agriculture see more benefits. Buy eBook. Buy Hardcover. Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy. Published on. Flowing text, Original pages.
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See more. Mohammed H. This book deals with the water policy and management in Canada. It discusses various problems and risks in the fresh and drinking water supply in the second largest country in the world.
Mohammed Dore argues that water is underpriced and used wastefully in Canada. In selected case studies, he illustrates the major threats from human activity to Canadian freshwaters and drinking water resources, including manufacturing, mining, oil sands production, animal farming and agricultural use. Selected case studies include reviews of even dramatic incidences, e.
The book warns that wastewater treatment standards are often not sufficient, so that many drinking water resources are in peril of wastewater contamination. As most of the water resources are provincial responsibility, the book discusses the water management policies in the different provinces separately. Through a detailed discussion and statistical analyses, it can define water policy and management lessons that emerge from the investigated case studies.
It ends by contrasting water policy and practice in Canada with the practice in some European countries. This book discusses different drinking water treatment technologies and what contaminants each treatment method can remove, and at what costs. The production of drinking water requires adequate management. This book attempts to fill the existing knowlegde gap about a water treatment technologies and their costs, b risk assessment methods, c adverse health effects of chemical contaminants, d management protocols, and varying regulatory practices in different jurisdictions, and what successes are possible even with small financial outlays.
Addressing water consulting engineers, politicians, water managers, ecosystem and environmental activists, and water policy researchers, and being clearly structured through a division in four parts, this book considers theoretical aspects, technologies, chemical contaminants and their possible elimination, and illustrates all aspects in selected international case studies.
Per-Olov Johansson. Should more water be diverted to or from electricity generation? This timely question is addressed in this short volume. Two different approaches are introduced and compared: The first is a cost-benefit analysis, examining the case of re-regulating a Swedish hydropower plant in which water is diverted from electricity generation to the downstream dryway.
The proposed scenario generates environmental and other benefits, but comes at a cost in terms of lost electricity. The second study introduces an approach very different from the one used in conventional cost-benefit analysis, and provides a set of measures designed so that most, if not all, affected parties will be better off. Thus, in contrast to a conventional cost-benefit analysis, which draws on hypothetical compensation measures, the new approach envisages actual compensation.
Comparing two different theoretical frameworks on the basis of a real-world case, this study can be seen as a manual that can be used to evaluate reasonably small re-regulation of rivers. Wastewater is one of the main sources of transmission of Salmonella to the environment [ 41 ]. To decrease the persistence of Salmonella , Ravva and Sarreal [ 42 ] proposed holding the wastewater for sufficient reduction cycles in ponds.
We found Salmonella only in one water sample sample site 23, Figure 1 and three soil samples in sufficient amounts for qualitative determination sample sites 3, 5, and 19, Figure 1. Although Salmonella can grow in grass-covered soils [ 43 ], its persistence in soils irrigated with wastewater is no more than three days [ 44 ] because it is affected by temperature, moisture, soil type, presence of plants, exposure to sunlight, and predation by protozoans and indigenous soil microbes [ 45 ]. Additionally, the source of bacteria, like Salmonella, may be domestic or wild animals.
Still, only four samples indicated the presence of Salmonella. Urban wastewater at treatment plants does not reduce or change the antibiotic-resistance of bacteria in the final effluent, but can reactivate and select antibiotic-resistant bacteria [ 31 , 46 , 47 ]. We isolated multi-drug resistant strains in culture media at higher concentrations of each antibiotic than the Enterobacteriaceae breakpoints given by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing EUCAST.
Many bacterial isolates from water were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin and isolates, respectively and soils and isolates, respectively Table 1.
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Huang et al. Reactivation could explain the prevalence of ampicillin-resistant bacterial strains in water. During September a lower presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria was observed in water samples. The effect of seasons in the prevalence of antibiotic resistant E. On the other hand, it has been reported that in winter the prevalence of antibiotics in soils is higher than in summer [ 50 ]. Nevertheless, independently of the gain or intrinsic resistance to a specific antibiotic in bacteria, the number of bacteria with a broad antibiotics resistance profile indicates an impact from humans or animals [ 51 , 52 ].
Wastewater: Economic Asset in an Urbanizing World
Number of bacterial isolates resistant to each antibiotic from samples of water and soil taken at recreational parks during three seasons. Using reclaimed wastewater to irrigate soils may increase the risk of antibiotic-resistant soil microorganisms. The generation of new antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in environments containing wastewater is related to two mechanisms: 1 the presence of low levels of antibiotics in the effluents [ 53 ], and 2 the transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from wastewater to the environment [ 18 , 54 ], which transfer their resistance to other microorganisms [ 55 ].
The real effect of wastewater irrigation on levels of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soils is not clear.
Negreanu et al. To analyze the resistance patterns in the bacterial isolates and test the correlation between water and soil samples taken at the same sampling point, a cluster analysis was performed. Our results showed that, although both sources water and soil of multidrug-resistant strains presented higher resistance to the same antibiotics ampicillin and gentamicin , we found that strains of the analyzed had differential resistance to the different combinations of antibiotic tested.
Multidrug-resistant strains clustered by types of sample water or soil instead of by sampling point Table 2. Cluster of multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from water and soils, based on the kind of antibiotic presenting resistance. These data indicate that the microorganisms had a behavior of antibiotic resistance that is related to the niche from which they originate reclaimed wastewater or soil.
Although there are many environmental factors that can facilitate the emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, the presence of resistant genes associated with mobile genetic elements mobilomes make the study of the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria more complicated [ 57 ]. In practice, gene flow is probably structured by ecology, with species that share similar niches drawing antibiotic resistance from similar gene pools [ 57 , 58 ].
High levels of multidrug-resistant bacteria in soils using reclaimed wastewater represent a public health risk; the pool of antibiotic resistance genes will continue to increase [ 59 ].
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The use of reclaimed wastewater for irrigating city parks does not present an immediate effect on the presence of microbial indicators of quality in soils, as determined by indicator microorganisms, such as E. Our results show the relationship between season, distance from the treatment plant, and storage tanks for reclaimed wastewater at the sampling point with E.
The hypothesis tested in this work is rejected for the effect of distance on microbial indicators, but accepted for the presence of storage tanks in the parks. The effects of summer on the concentration of E. Although cluster analysis indicates that multidrug-resistant bacteria are clustered according to their origin in water or soil, the high levels of these microorganisms is a potential risk factor for human health. This project was supported by a grant from the Gob. Oskar A. Palacios and Guadalupe V. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.