This blending of the concrete and the abstract was the chief characteristic of almost all his researches.
kinetic theory of heat
In this unjustly neglected classic, Maxwell sets forth the fundamentals of thermodynamics clearly and simply enough to be understood by a beginning student, yet with enough subtlety and depth of thought to appeal also to more advanced readers. He goes on to elucidate the fundamental ideas of kinetic theory, and — through the mental experiment of "Maxwell's demon" — points out how the Second Law of Thermodynamics relies on statistics.
A new Introduction and notes by Peter Pesic put Maxwell's work into context and show how it relates to the quantum ideas that emerged a few years later. Theory of Heat will serve beginners as a sound introduction to thermal physics; advanced students of physics and the history of science will find Maxwell's ideas stimulating, and will be delighted to discover this inexpensive reprint of a long-unavailable classic.
Book Reg. Product Description Bonus Editorial Product Details Though James Clerk Maxwell — is best remembered for his epochal achievements in electricity and magnetism, he was wide-ranging in his scientific investigations, and he came to brilliant conclusions in virtually all of them.
James Clerk Maxwell: In His Own Words — And Others Dover reprinted Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism in , surely one of the first classics of scientific literature over a thousand pages in length to be given new life and accessibility to students and researchers as a result of the paperback revolution of the s. The former assumes that heat is carried by quasi-particles known as phonons which are the quanta that carry sound waves. These particles have a well-defined energy and velocity and in this approach the heat conductivity is proportional to the product of the square of the phonon velocity and its mean free path that is, the distance it travels before it bounces off an impurity or another phonon.
The Green-Kubo method, for its part, is, in principle, applicable to a wider range of materials, but in reality, it is extremely inefficient at low and intermediate temperatures generally speaking, below half the melting temperature of a material. And while, in theory, it can account for quantum effects, no practical techniques are available to numerically simulate these effects.
Usually, the Green-Kubo theory requires that the equations of motion for a model system comprising several hundred to a few thousand atoms are solved using molecular dynamics for a time ranging from a few hundred picoseconds to a few nanoseconds, he says. The longer it takes for a system to reach equilibrium, the longer the simulation time must be.
Theory of heat - Wikipedia
And the lower the temperature, the more ordered the system is and the longer it takes for the system to come to equilibrium. This is why Green-Kubo molecular dynamics is not the method of choice for ordered crystals at low temperature and the Boltzmann-Peierls approach is favoured instead — even though this approach does not apply to disordered systems.
We have shown that the Green-Kubo formula for the thermal conductivity can be analytically computed within this approximation and that it yields the same results as the Boltzmann-Peierls method in the case of a perfect crystal.
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But, it also happily provides well-defined results for glasses for which the Boltzmann-Peierls approach would not work. Our scheme allows us to deal with disordered and crystalline solids on the same footing for the first time and with the same level of accuracy, he states. Such applications include: thermoelectric energy harvesting; solid-state cooling; thermal insulation; and thermal barrier coatings all of which require extremely low thermal conductivity ; and heat management in high-power electronics; batteries; and photovoltaics all of which require high thermal conductivity.
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The idea of an imaginary fluid to represent heat helped explain many but not all aspects of heat phenomena. It was a step toward the present conception of energy —i.
From crystals to glasses: a new unified theory for heat transport
The caloric theory was influential until the midth century, by which time many kinds of experiments, primarily with the mechanical equivalent of heat, forced a general recognition that heat is a form of energy transfer and, in particular, that limitless amounts of heat could be generated by doing work on a substance.
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