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This usually begins in the gut, at the junction between the small and large intestines. Left unchecked, our gut bacteria begin to digest the intestines, and then the surrounding tissues, from the inside out, using the chemical cocktail that leaks out of damaged cells as a food source.

Then they invade the capillaries of the digestive system and lymph nodes, spreading first to the liver and spleen, then into the heart and brain.

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Javan and her team took samples of liver, spleen, brain, heart, and blood from 11 cadavers, at between 20 and hours after death, then used two different state-of-the-art DNA sequencing technologies, combined with bioinformatics, to analyse and compare the bacterial content of each sample. They found that samples taken from different organs in the same cadaver were very similar to each other, but were very different from those taken from the same organs in other bodies.

This may be due partly to individual differences in the composition of the microbiome of the individuals involved in the study. The variations may also be related to differences in the period of time that had elapsed since death. The first bacteria they detected came from a sample of liver tissue obtained from a cadaver just 20 hours after death, but the earliest time at which bacteria were found in all samples from the same cadaver was 58 hours after death.

Thus, after we die, our bacteria may spread through the body in a stereotyped way, and the timing with which they infiltrate first one internal organ and then another may provide a new way of estimating the amount of time that has elapsed since death. One thing that already seems clear, though, is that different stages of decomposition are associated with a different composition of cadaver bacteria.

Once self-digestion is under way and bacteria have started to escape from the gastrointestinal tract, putrefaction begins. This is molecular death — the break down of soft tissues even further, into gases, liquids and salts. It is already under way at the earlier stages of decomposition, but really gets going when anaerobic bacteria get in on the act. Putrefaction is associated with a marked shift from aerobic bacterial species, which require oxygen to grow, to anaerobic ones, which do not.

This causes further discoloration of the body. As damaged blood cells continue to leak from disintegrating vessels, anaerobic convert haemoglobin molecules, which once carried oxygen around the body, into sulfhaemoglobin. The presence of this molecule in settled blood gives skin the marbled, greenish-black appearance characteristic of a body undergoing active decomposition.

Eventually, the gases and liquefied tissues purge from the body, usually leaking from the anus and other orifices, and often also from ripped skin in other parts of the body. Sometimes, the pressure is so great that the abdomen bursts open. Bloating is often used a marker for the transition between early and later stages of decomposition, and another recent study shows that this transition is characterised by a distinct shift in the composition of cadaveric bacteria.

Within, a nine-acre plot of densely wooded land has been sealed off from the wider area, and further subdivided, by foot-high green wire fences topped with barbed wire.

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Here, scattered among the pine trees, are about a half dozen human cadavers, in various stages of decay. The two most recently placed bodies lay spread-eagled near the centre of the small enclosure, with much of their loose, grey-blue mottled skin still intact, their rib cages and pelvic bones visible between slowly putrefying flesh. A few meters away lies another cadaver, fully skeletonized, with its black, hardened skin clinging to the bones, as if it were wearing a shiny latex suit and skullcap.

Further still, beyond other skeletal remains that had obviously been scattered by vultures , lay another, within a wood and wire cage, this one nearing the end of the death cycle, partly mummified and with several large, brown mushrooms growing from where an abdomen once was. In late , SHSU researchers Sibyl Bucheli and Aaron Lynne and their colleagues placed two fresh cadavers here, left them to decay under natural conditions, and then took samples of bacteria from their various parts, at the beginning and the end of the bloat stage.

They then extracted bacterial DNA from the samples, and sequenced it to find that bloating is characterised by a marked shift from aerobic to anaerobic species. As an entomologist, Bucheli is mainly interested in the insects that colonise cadavers. When a decomposing body starts to purge, it becomes fully exposed to its surroundings. Two species closely linked with decomposition are blowflies, flesh flies and their larvae.

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Cadavers give off a foul, sickly-sweet odour , made up of a complex cocktail of volatile compounds, whose ingredients change as decomposition progresses. Blowflies detect the smell using specialised smell receptors, then land on the cadaver and lay its eggs in orifices and open wounds. Each fly deposits around eggs, that hatch within 24 hours, giving rise to small first-stage maggots. These feed on the rotting flesh and then molt into larger maggots, which feed for several hours before molting again.

After feeding some more, these yet larger, and now fattened, maggots wriggle away from the body. Under the right conditions, an actively decaying body will have large numbers of stage-three maggots feeding on it. Like penguins huddling, individual maggots within the mass are constantly on the move.


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But whereas penguins huddle to keep warm, maggots in the mass move around to stay cool. The presence of blowflies attracts predators such as skin beetles, mites, ants, wasps, and spiders, to the cadaver, which then feed on or parasitize their eggs and larvae. Vultures and other scavengers, as well as other, large meat-eating animals, may also descend upon the body. In the absence of scavengers though, it is the maggots that are responsible for removal of the soft tissues. Their activity is so rigorous that their migration paths may be seen after decomposition is finished, as deep furrows in the soil emanating from the cadaver.

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Given the paucity of human decomposition research, we still know very little about the insect species that colonise a cadaver. The usual suspects were present, but Lindgren also noted four unusual insect-cadaver interactions that had never been documented before, including a scorpionfly that was found feeding on brain fluids through an autopsy wound in the scalp, and a worm found feeding on the dried skin around where the toenails had been, which was previously only known to feed on decaying wood.

Insects colonise a cadaver in successive waves, and each has its own unique life cycle. They can therefore provide information that is useful for estimating time of death, and for learning about the circumstances of death. This has led to the emerging field of forensic entomology. Insects can be useful for estimating time of death of a badly decomposing body.

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And, because many insect species have a limited geographical distribution, the presence of a given species can link a body to a certain location, or show that it has been moved from one place to another. In practice, though, using insects to estimate time of death is fraught with difficulties. Time of death estimates based on the age of blowfly maggots found on a body are based on the assumption that flies colonised the cadaver right after death, but this is not always the case — burial can exclude insects altogether, for example, and extreme temperatures inhibit their growth or prevent it altogether.

An earlier study led by Lindgren revealed another unusual way by which blowflies might be prevented from laying eggs on a cadaver. The body began to bloat then it blew up, and at that point the flies could colonise it. Insects are cold-blooded, and so their growth rate occurs relative to temperature rather than to the calendar. Adversarial training for free! Who Learns? When does label smoothing help? Pinheiro Element AI. Deep imitation learning for molecular inverse problems Eric Jonas University of Chicago.

How many variables should be entered in a principal component regression equation? Cristiano I. Is Deeper Better only when Shallow is Good? Colorado, Boulder. What the Vec? Saal University of Sheffield.

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