The concept has its roots in the works of Basil Bernstein, who explored patterns of communication among social classes in Britain. Bernstein formulated the idea to account for variation in communication practice, and it is that commitment to variability or diversity, along with others, such as distinctiveness and membership, which grounds the idea of speech code, or communication code, as it is used here. Cultural Discourse Analysis is a methodology for examining codes, and has been developed within this intellectual tradition. According to Gerry Philipsen, a pioneer and seminal figure in such study, cultural communication is the realization of a code in a communal conversation.
The theory of cultural communication and of cultural discourse focuses on distinctive means of communication that are used in specific contexts, and the meanings of those practices to participants who use them. The methodology employed in this type of analysis is rigorously based on five analytically different yet complementary modes of analysis; these involve four nonoptional modes of theoretical, descriptive, interpretive, and comparative analyses. A fifth mode is also valuable at times, and it involves critical study. The study of codes and cultural discourse derives from diverse intellectual traditions.
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Chief among these are the ethnography of communication and sociolinguistics. From this tradition, especially from the works of Basil Bernstein e. Also from this tradition has been drawn the importance of studying language-in-use in contexts of everyday living, as a part of sociocultural life, especially as developed in the ethnography of communication by Dell Hymes. The idea that language is intimately linked to sociocultural life was presented in Hymes and elaborately advanced in the culture theory of Geertz , which presents studies of culture as meaning-making practices, with these practices immanent in the flow of socially situated discourses.
Schneider presents an influential work theorizing culture as a system of symbols and meanings, thus requiring a kind of interpretive research for understanding the meanings embodied in symbols. In the tradition of hermeneutic phenomenology, Gadamer emphasizes the importance of language in creating the horizons of our realities, each horizon with its own prejudices but also with its own ways of thinking as well as fusing among others.
The works annotated here therefore provide a useful intellectual background in the study of codes and cultural discourses. Bernstein, Basil. A sociolinguistic approach to socialization; with some reference to educability. In Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication.
Hymes, — New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Bernstein discusses the concept of code as a patterned process of social action. He introduces coding activities people may use when conducting their social lives and identifies two types that he calls elaborated and restricted.
He illustrates how each varies along dimensions of open to closed processing, and personal to positional roles. Related Content. Shaping visual literacy has been at the forefront of contemporary discourse, as images have increasingly surpassed words in becoming the primary vehicles to persuade our emotions. Visually encoded domains of symbols and signs inform the educational, public and entertainment industries increasingly as an undifferentiated whole, aided by globalizing media forces in various forms. Whether top-down, peer-peer, one-to-may, or many-to-many, this volume attempts to derive sets of rules used to visually decode patterns present in certain media formats — press, cinema, television and maps, among others — and the place of the spectator in their respective dynamics.
The topics discussed transition through various approaches to deconstruct mass media influences to engage critical thinking skills, and ending with a collection of chapters dedicated to exploring their effects upon children, and the capacity to be implemented to foster collaboration-based creative learning environments. Educational Tales of the Unexpected: Children and Creativity. Editor: Doireann O'Connor.
Creativity in Educational Research and Practice. Author: Elena Xeni. London: Methuen. Signification, representation, ideology: Althusser and the post-structuralist debates.
A Cultural Approach to Discourse
Critical Studies in Mass Communication , 2 2 , Representations and relations: Ideology and power in press and TV news. New York: Walter de Gruyter. Social semiotics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Hymes, Dell H. Language in culture and society. Johnson, Richard. What is cultural studies anyway? Social Text , 16 , Hegemony and socialist strategy. London: Verso. MacCabe, Colin. Theoretical essays: Film, linguistics, literature. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Cultural studies and the turn to discourse analysis. Morris, Meaghan. Banality in cultural studies.
Ideology, Discourse, and Cultural Studies: The Contribution of Michel Pêcheux
In Patricia Mellencamp Ed. London: BFI. Murphy, John W. Making sense of postmodern sociology.
British Journal of Sociology , 39 4 , Marxism and the interpretation of culture. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Language, semantics and ideology , New York: St. Martin's Press.
Cultural approaches to discourse
La langue introuvable. Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory , 7 , Ideology: Fortress or paradoxical space. New York: International General. Discourse: Structure or event? Robinson, Gertrude J. Semiotics and communications studies: Points of contact. Voigt Eds. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Ross, Andrew Ed. Universal abandon? Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Sinclair, J. A course in spoken English: Grammar.
- Discourse Approaches.
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London: Oxford University Press. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. In other worlds: Essays in cultural politics. New York: Methuen.